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In its historical sense, the term refers to the Middle Ages and to the Early Modern period during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power, juxtaposed with both the pagan and the Muslim world. In the traditional Roman Catholic sense of the word, it refers to the sum total of nations in which the Catholic Church is the established religion of the state or to those with ecclesiastical concordats with the Holy See.

Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition

The Anglo-Saxon term cristendom appears to have been invented in the 9th century by a scribe somewhere in southern England at the court of king Alfred the Great of Wessex ; the scribe was translating Paulus Orosius ' book History Against the Pagans and in need for a term to express the concept of the universal culture focused on Jesus Christ. It had the sense now taken by Christianity; the current sense of the word of "lands where Christianity is the dominant religion" emerged in Late Middle English. The reason is the increasing fragmentation of Western Christianity at that time both theologically and politically.

Canadian theology professor Douglas John Hall stated that "Christendom" means the dominion or sovereignty of the Christian religion. The Christian polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a temporal body: Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah ; the word "Christendom" is used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity. A more secular meaning can denote the fact that the term Christendom refers to Christians as a group, the "political Christian world", as an informal cultural hegemony that Christianity has traditionally enjoyed in the West.

In its most broad term, it refers to the world's Christian-majority countries, share little in common aside from the predominance of the faith.

Unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom is more complex. There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word, much like the terms Western world, known world or Free World ; when Thomas F.

Connolly said, "There isn't enough power in all Christendom to make that airplane what we want! The notion of " Europe " and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom". The post-apostolic period concerns the time after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations; the earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity and catholic, dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c.

Early Christendom would close at t.

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It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War , it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until , when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty ; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy.

In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture , which became codified in the Salic law.

Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy , but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots , which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America , known collectively as New France.

Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France. The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in , but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in and lasted until the French Revolution of During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks.

After Charlemagne's death in his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror. During the reign of Charles the Simple , Normans under Rollo from Norway , were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris , to become Normandy.

The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris , established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support.

The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of , making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal , in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II , allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory.

After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in , the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne ; the death of Charles IV of France in without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman Philip IV's daughter. He instigated a fierce and long-running, yet unsuccessful war of independence with the aim of ending English rule in Wales. The uprising was suppressed by the superior resources of the English.

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His death was recorded by a former follower in the year With his death Owain acquired a mythical status along with Cadwaladr and Arthur as the hero awaiting the call to return and liberate his people. In the late 19th century, the Cymru Fydd movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism.

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Owain is thought to have been sent to London to study law at the Inns of Court , he studied as a legal apprentice for seven years. He was in London during the Peasants' Revolt of By , he had returned to Wales, where he married David Hanmer's daughter, started his large family and established himself as the Squire of Sycharth and Glyndyfrdwy, with all the responsibilities that entailed.

On 3 September , he was called to give evidence in the Scrope v Grosvenor trial at Chester. He served as a squire to Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt, at the short, sharp Battle of Radcot Bridge in December , he had gained three years' concentrated military experience in different theatres and seen at first hand some key events and people.

King Richard was distracted by a growing conflict with the Lords Appellant from this time on. The following are given by the Jacob Youde William Lloyd : Brother Tudur, Lord of Gwyddelwern , born about , died 11 March at a battle in Brecknockshire in the wars of his brother.

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Brother Gruffudd who had a daughter and heiress, Eva. Sister Gwenllian. Tudur and Lowri are given as his siblings by the more cautious Prof. Owain's petition for redress was ignored. Pope The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See , it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence.

The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter , to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history.

In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity , intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages , they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers.

However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters.